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Glossary

Age boundaries (delinquency)
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Delinquency age boundaries

States juvenile justice statutes define age limits for the juvenile court to assume original jurisdiction in delinquency matters. Lower, upper and extended age boundaries are encompassed in the term. 

Age boundaries (status offense)
Data: Status offense issues: Age boundaries

States juvenile justice statutes define age limits for the juvenile court to assume original jurisdiction in non-criminal behaviors of youth that violate state laws by virtue of a person's status a minor. Lower and upper age boundaries are encompassed in the term. 

Age of criminal responsibility
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Delinquency age boundaries

A concept based on common law, which set boundaries on when a child could be punished for conduct that would be considered a crime for an adult. Generally, unless state legislatures or supreme court opinions restrict otherwise, when youth are between age seven and 14, there is a “rebuttable presumption” that a child may be criminally responsible, subject to debate.  Those below age seven are not criminally responsible for their conduct.  

Agency integration (state)
Data: Systems integration: Agency integration

Systems integration, agency integration is a Juvenile Justice GPS term applied to how child welfare and core juvenile justice services are organized within each state and the degree to which they are integrated or separated.

Basic services (juvenile justice)
Data: Juvenile justice services: Basic services

Basic services is a Juvenile Justice GPS term that indicates the level a common core set of juvenile justice intervention services are organized.

Broad human services agency
Data: Juvenile justice services: Corrections agency

The general public welfare agency.

Collateral consequences
Data: Juvenile defense: Collateral consequences

Collateral consequences occur when a finding or adjudication of delinquency occurs and can have lifelong implications that impact personal liberties, guarantees and rights.

Competency to stand trial
Data: Juvenile court: Competency to stand trial

Competency refers to the person’s current state in the courtroom rather than a defense of insanity at the time of the alleged offense.

Corrections agency
Data: Juvenile justice services: Corrections agency

Corrections agency refers to the state executive branch agencies administering commitments to state juvenile correctional facilities.

Courtroom shackling
Data: Juvenile court: Courtroom shackling

Shackles are defined by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges to include handcuffs, waist chains, ankle restraints, zip ties, or other restraints that are designed to impede movement or control behavior.

Criminal blended sentencing
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Criminal court can impose juvenile dispositions and/or adult criminal sanctions while retaining jurisdiction. Details »

Criminal court petition
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

When minors can initially face charges in (adult) criminal court. Details »

Detention
Data: Juvenile justice services: Basic services

Pre-disposition custody facilities for youth awaiting juvenile court decisions akin to jails in the adult system. In some states youth are also held in detention centers while awaiting placement in a long term facility or as a sanction as part of their disposition.

Discretionary waiver
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

At a hearing, the Juvenile Court judge makes the decision and/or verifies that criteria are met before waiving its jurisdiction for prosecution in (adult) criminal court. Details »

Disproportionate representation index (DRI)
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Monitoring methods

The disproportionate representation index (DRI) method represents the non-white rate of occurrence in the at-risk youth population divided by the white rate in the general population (also see simple rate).

DMC coordinators (state)
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: DMC coordinators

Racial/ethnic fairness state DMC coordinators is a Juvenile Justice GPS term that organizes information concerning the resource allocation states make for federally required positions supporting the purpose of advancing racial and ethnic fairness in juvenile justice. 

Due process protections
Data: Juvenile defense: Waiver of counsel

Notices, appointing counsel, competent to stand trial

EBP state support
Data: Juvenile justice services: Evidence-based practices

In some cases, EBPs are required by state statues and/or state agency policies. Some states have created support centers to provide guidance on the topic as well. Eight states have no official stance on EBPs in juvenile justice.

Exclusive jurisdiction
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Refers to categories of offenses allegedly committed by minors that must be charged in (adult) criminal court instead of juvenile court.   The legislature’s decision is made by setting mandates. Detail.

Extended age
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Delinquency age boundaries

The highest age delinquent youth can remain under juvenile court jurisdiction for disposition and provision of services. Details »

Family/child welfare agency or division
Data: Juvenile justice services: Corrections agency

Agencies within a broader social or human services agency or independent children and youth serving agencies that manage both child protection and juvenile corrections.

Full oversight
Data: Juvenile defense: Defense structure

Oversight body with the power to hire (or appoint) and/or fire (either for cause or at will) the chief public defender who delivers defense services—in some branch of the state government.

Independent juvenile corrections agency
Data: Juvenile justice services: Corrections agency

State agencies of equal stature to a state’s adult department of corrections.

Indian child
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Tribal delinquency jurisdiction

A person under age 18, unmarried, and either: 1) a member of a federally-recognized tribe; OR 2) the biological child of a tribal member AND eligible for membership. See 25 U.S.C. § 1903 (ICWA definition)

Indian country
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Tribal delinquency jurisdiction

Refers to the land of federally recognized Indian reservations, dependent Indian communities within US state and Territory borders, Indian allotments, and rights-of way running through them.  See 18 U.S.C. § 1151.

Judicially
Data: Juvenile defense: Indigency requirements

The judge determines indigency on a case-by-case basis which can slow down the process of juveniles getting access to representation.

Juvenile blended sentencing
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Juvenile court can impose juvenile dispositions and/or adult criminal sanctions while retaining jurisdiction. Details »

Juvenile court petition
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

At a hearing, the juvenile court judge makes the decision and/or verifies that criteria are met before waiving its jurisdiction for prosecution in (adult) criminal court. Details »

Labeling (status offense)
Data: Status offense issues: Labeling

Juvenile justice services structure is a Juvenile Justice GPS term that indicates the legal labels applied by state juvenile justice statutes to youth who commit status offenses or non-criminal behaviors referred to juvenile court.

Layered/regional assessment
Data: Juvenile justice services: Risk assessment

States do not achieve statewide implementation with a single tool due to layered probation (state and local) or due to regional differences.

Legislatively
Data: Juvenile defense: Indigency requirements

The legislature presumes all youth referred to court indigent initially, thereby speeding up the process of juveniles making contact with their counsel. The most progressive states (Louisiana, Montana, North Carolina, and Virginia) require that counsel undergoes specialized juvenile training.

Localized
Data: Juvenile defense: Defense structure

Primary responsibility for providing indigent defense services rests with county governments or with judicial circuits comprised of county groups.

Locally administered assessment
Data: Juvenile justice services: Risk assessment

States lack requirement to implement risk assessment tool allowing local policy to govern the use of risk need assessment tools.

Lower age
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Delinquency age boundaries

The lowest age a minor's conduct can be labeled delinquent. Details »

Mandatory waiver
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Once the juvenile court judge verifies conditions are met, the matter must be transferred to criminal court. Details ».

Mental health screening
Data: Juvenile justice services: Evidence-based practices

States requiring mental health screenings in juvenile detention, probation, and/or correctional settings.

Mitigating provisions
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

These statutes balance the initial charging decision by permitting the criminal court judge to waive its jurisdiction for transfer to juvenile court, or authorize either judge to order a blend of juvenile and adult sanctions. Details »

Mitigating provisions
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

These statutes balance the initial charging decision by permitting the criminal court judge to waive its jurisdiction for transfer to juvenile court, or authorize either judge to order a blend of juvenile and adult sanctions. Details »

Monitoring methods (race and ethnicity)
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Monitoring methods

Racial and ethnic fairness monitoring methods is a Juvenile Justice GPS term for organizing the primary statistical approaches for monitoring overrepresentation of youth of color in the juvenile justice system at a surface or vital signs indicator level. 

National data
Data: Juvenile defense: National outcomes

National data is a Juvenile Justice GPS term applied to justice trends derived from national data sets or sources.

No oversight
Data: Juvenile defense: Defense structure

No oversight body to supervise or advise the delivery of indigent defense.

Once/always adult
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

The legislature makes the decision based on a minor’s prior history in (adult) criminal court; or mandates are based on a minor’s prior history in (adult) criminal court. Details »

Partial oversight
Data: Juvenile defense: Defense structure

Oversight body is merely an advisory or standard-setting body, or any centralized organization that lacks the power to hire, dismiss, or otherwise control the performance of the defenders.

Populations (race and ethnicity)
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Populations

Racial and ethnic fairness populations is a Juvenile Justice GPS term for organizing population trends and projections for youth ages 10-17 at risk of juvenile justice system involvement in their life time.

Presumptive waiver
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Statutes specify conditions appropriate for criminal court, but permit the juvenile (defense) to argue to stay under juvenile court jurisdiction. Details ».

Probation
Data: Juvenile justice services: Basic services

The responsibility for delivering the community supervision activity for youth who receive this disposition from the juvenile court. Probation can encompass many additional responsibilities depending on the state.

Progressive data (state)
Data: Juvenile defense: Progressive data

Progressive data is a Juvenile Justice GPS term applied to topics where states with nuanced or sophisticated online display of data exist.

Prosecutor discretion
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Prosecutors can bring charges in (adult) criminal court as an executive branch decision. Details »

Public defender
Data: Juvenile defense: Indigency requirements

The public defender’s office applies indigency screening.

Public defender
Data: Juvenile defense: Indigency requirements

Public defender screening of juvenile defendants who met criteria for an attorney provided by their office at public expense.

Qualifying transfer categories
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Usually defined by minimum age, current offense alleged, aggravated circumstances (use of a deadly weapon or vulnerability of the victim), and/or prior court involvement. 

Reentry
Data: Juvenile justice services: Basic services

The responsibility for planning and delivering community supervision and support services to youth who are returning to the community from a state commitment to juvenile corrections.

Relative rate index (RRI)
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Monitoring methods

A relative rate index statistic (RRI) is calculated by dividing a non-white group’s rate of occurrence for a specific decision by the white rate at the same decision point.

Release decision (corrections)
Data: Juvenile justice services: Corrections agency

The decision-making processes that result in the release of a youth from state correction institutions.

Reported data (state)
Data: Juvenile defense: Reported data

Reported data is a Juvenile Justice GPS term applied to topics that organize publicly available juvenile justice trend data from state agencies.

Reverse waiver (remand)
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

The criminal court judge can transfer the matter to juvenile court for adjudication and/or disposition. Details »

Risk instruments
Data: Juvenile justice services: Evidence-based practices

Many states require the use of a risk assessment tool through state statute or probation agency policy and provide training on their use, while other states simply recommend the practice. Local policies also support the practice in many states.

Sentencing
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

The sentencing judge can impose juvenile dispositions and/or criminal sanctions. Detail.

Simple rates
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Monitoring methods

The simple rate or disproportionate representation index (DRI) method represents the non-white rate of occurrence in the at-risk youth population divided by the white rate in the general population.

State coordination
Data: Systems integration: Coordination

Systems integration, state coordination is a Juvenile Justice GPS term referring to state-level policies intended to coordinate information or data on youth with dual child welfare and juvenile justice experiences as well as services. 

Statewide
Data: Juvenile defense: Defense structure

Juvenile indigent defense is largely controlled, funded, trained, and supervised by a statewide public defender.

Statewide uniform assessment
Data: Juvenile justice services: Risk assessment

States adopt a single risk assessment tool statewide that is required or encouraged by the state.

Statutory exclusion
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

The legislature sets categories of qualifying offenses and ages that exclude minors from juvenile court jurisdiction. Details »

Transfer discretion
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer discretion

Transfer to criminal court decisions are organized within the power of the judiciary, prosecutors or state legislatures. 

Transfer pathways
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

The primary, statute-defined procedures (often called transfer mechanisms or provisions) for making exceptions to the age boundaries of the juvenile court and juvenile justice system in favor of the criminal court and the criminal justice system.

Transfer provisions
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Transfer provisions are the procedural mechanisms for transferring youth from juvenile court jurisdiction to the criminal court. There are 6 primary categories of provisions. 

Tribal
Data: Racial/ethnic fairness: Tribal delinquency jurisdiction

Refers to 25 U.S.C. § 1903, which defines an “Indian Tribe” as an Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians recognized as eligible for the services provided to Indians by the Secretary because of their status as Indians, including any Alaska Native village as defined in 43 U.S.C § 1602(c).

Upper age
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Delinquency age boundaries

The highest age a minor's conduct can be labeled delinquent. Details »

Youthful offender
Data: Jurisdictional boundaries: Transfer provisions

Many states have developed youthful offender categories for those tried as adults, but with traditionally juvenile protections such as expunging the criminal record and/or alternatives to mandatory sentences.

About this project

Juvenile Justice GPS (Geography, Policy, Practice, Statistics) is a project to develop a repository providing state policy makers and system stakeholders with a clear understanding of the juvenile justice landscape in the states.

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